The third largest island in the Mediterranean, Cyprus (Cipros in Greek/Kibris in Turkish) is located south of Turkey and west of Syria and Lebanon.

The Cyprian mouflon (Ovis gmelini ophion), a type of wild sheep, was nearly exterminated during the twentieth century but now numbers around 3000.

The Cyprian white-throated dipper (Cinclus cinclus olympicus) was an endemic subspecies of passerine bird that formerly occurred in the Troodos Mountains. Last recorded in 1945, it was almost certainly extinct by 1958.

The Cyprian whip snake (Hierophis cypriensis) is known from a few localities in the Troodos Mountains and the foothills of western Cyprus.